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Exposure to ultraviolet radiation present in sunlight and other sources causes the skin to change or even damage it. This is called photo-ageing. The long term effects of photoageing on the skin include wrinkles and/or discolouration. Up to 80% of the skin’s ageing is caused by ultraviolet radiation. There are two categories into which the ageing of skin can be classified: Intrinsic (gene dependant) and Extrinsic. Extrinsic ageing is caused by external factors such as smoking, wind, heat, pollution, and harmful ultraviolet.

Intrinsic ageing is inherited. It is the rate at which the skin age and is passed down from parents.

Extrinsic ageing is the process by which the skin is damaged or altered due to the exposure of ultraviolet radiation and other sources.

Intrinsic ageing

The production of collagen and elastin are stunted by sun exposure. This caused the skin to lose its ability to repair itself.

Long term effects of this process include the following: wrinkles, uneven colouring and textural changes. This skin also becomes thinner and less resistant to wrinkling.

Skin Concerns


Hyper-pigmentation is when the skin has an uneven colour, appears dark or even blotchy. Melanin is brown pigment found naturally in the skin that gives it colour. Excess of melanin is produced in the skin as a form of protection. Hyper-pigmentation differs in depth as well as in the cause thereof.

It is a very difficult condition to treat as the depth of the pigment it the greatest challenge.

Sun damage is a very common trigger for hyper-pigmentation. Freckles, age spots, and other darkened skin patches can become darker or more evident when the skin is exposed to the sun.

Melasma or Chloasma it triggered by hormonal changes or influences. A typical example is pregnancy. During pregnancy the over production of melanin can cause hyper-pigmentation on the face.


Birth control pills may also trigger the occurrence of hyper-pigmentation as the body undergo similar hormonal changes as during pregnancy.

Post Inflammatory Hyper-pigmentation is caused by any type of trauma to the skin, e.g. Acne. Post Inflammatory Hyper-pigmentation (PIH) is causes by the overproduction of melanin in cells due to an inflammatory reaction in the skin. It leaves the skin with discoloured spots or large darkened patches. It is more common in people from Africa, Asian, Latin and Indian backgrounds. It can affect both men and women.


Acne is a very common skin disease that nearly 85% of people develop at some time between 12-25 years. Adult acne can affect 25% of men and up to 50% of men and women.

It is characterised by pimples on the face, chest and back. It mainly occurs due to clogged pores from oil, dead skin cells and bacteria. The exact cause of acne is unknown however there are factors that can contribute to the development thereof. Hormonal changes, diet, hereditary and environmental factors are some of the factors. Hereditary – if there is a family history of acne, those individuals are more susceptible to the disease. Environment – exposure to oils and greases, polluted air and sweat.

Dry / Atopic Skin

Skin dryness  is one of the most common skin concerns in the professional skin care industry.

Sensitivity often accompany a dry skin. Studies have shown that the primary trigger of skin dryness and sensitivity is an impaired epidermal barrier.

It can be genetic, but allergens, clothing, food/drink, jewellery, stress, sweat and temperature change can aggravate the severity there of.

Acne	Dry / Atopic Skin

Dull Devitalised Skin

A devitalised skin is characterised dehydration, dark circles around the eyes, textural changes, fine lines and even early signs of pigmentation. It is important to improve the skin’s free radical  protection, hydration levels and to increase cellular activity to create a younger more hydrated, healthier looking skin.

Skin Lesions  

A skin lesion is any localised abnormal structural change in a bodily part. It is a superficial growth or patch of the skin not occurring on the area directly surrounding it. It varies in colour and texture and may even be present at birth such as moles or birthmarks. It can develop during a person’s lifetime, often associated with infectious diseases such as warts, acne, allergic reactions or environmental agents e.g. sunburn and telangiectasia resulting in dark spots and dilated capillaries.

Dull Devitalised Skin

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